Abstract : Visual content is often better communicated by simpliﬁed or exaggerated images than by the "real world like" images. In this paper, we offer a tool for creating such enhanced representations of photographs in a way consistent with the original image content. To do so, we develop a method to identify the relevant image strucures and their importance. Our approach (a) uses edges as the basic structural unit in the image, (b) proposes tools to manipulate this structure in a ﬂexible way, and (c) employs gradient domain image processing techniques to reconstruct the ﬁnal image from a "cropped" gradient information. This edge-based approach to non-photorealistic image processing is made feasible by two new techniques we introduce: an addition to the Gaussian scale space theory to compute a perceptually meaningful hierarchy of structures, and a contrast estimation method necessary for faithful gradient-based reconstructions. We ﬁnally present various applications that manipulate image structure in different ways.