Abstract : XPath is a powerful and quite successful language able to perform complex node selection in trees through compact specifications. As such, it plays a growing role in many areas ranging from schema specifications, designation and transformation languages to XML query languages. Moreover, researchers have proposed elegant and tractable formal semantics, fostering various works on mathematical properties and theoretical tools. We propose here a novel way to consider XPath, not only for selecting nodes, but also for tree rewriting using rules. In the rule semantics we explore, XPath expressions are used both on the left and on the right side. We believe that this proposal opens new perspectives toward building highly concise XML transformation languages on widely accepted basis.