Abstract : This is a summary of the authors PhD thesis supervised by Hervé Rivano and defended on 29 October 2009 at the Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis. The thesis is written in French and is available from http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00428940/. This work deals with the optimization of the capacity of wireless mesh networks, defined as the throughput offered to each flow. We develop optimization models integrating the cross-layer characteristics of radio communications. The joint routing and scheduling is studied and solved using column generation. A linear formulation focusing on the transport capacity available on the network cuts is derived. We prove the equivalence of the models, and adapt the resolution method into a cross line and column generation process. Thorough tests, a contention area located around the gateways which constraints the capacity is highlighted. These results are applied to a quantitative study of the effects of acknowledgments on the capacity. Finally, a stability study of a protocol routing a traffic injected arbitrarily is investigated.