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Model and large-scale simulator of a biological retina, with contrast gain control

Adrien Wohrer 1 
1 ODYSSEE - Computer and biological vision
DI-ENS - Département d'informatique - ENS Paris, CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris, Inria Paris-Rocquencourt, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech
Abstract : The retina is a complex neural structure. The characteristics of retinal processing are reviewed extensively in Part I of this work: It is a very ordered structure, which proceeds to band-pass spatio-temporal enhancements of the incoming light, along different parallel output pathways with distinct spatio-temporal properties. The spike trains emitted by the retina have a complex statistical structure, such that precise spike timings may play a role in the code conveyed by the retina. Several mechanisms of gain control provide a constant adaptation of the retina to luminosity and contrast. The retina model that we have defined and implemented in Part II can account for a good part of this complexity. It can model spatio-temporal band-pass behavior with adjustable filtering scales, with the inclusion of plausible mechanisms of contrast gain control and spike generation. The gain control mechanism proposed in the model provides a good fit to experimental data, and it can induce interesting effects of local renormalization in the output retinal image. Furthermore, a mathematical analysis confirms that the gain control behaves well under simple sinusoidal stimulation. Finally, the simulator /Virtual Retina/ implements the model on a large-scale, so that it can emulate up to around 100,000 cells with a processing speed of about 1/100 real time. It is ready for use in various applications, while including a number of advanced retinal functionalities which are too often overlooked.
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https://hal.inria.fr/tel-03300180
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Adrien Wohrer. Model and large-scale simulator of a biological retina, with contrast gain control. Computer Science [cs]. Université de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 2008. English. ⟨tel-03300180⟩

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