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Invariant and coinvariant spaces for the algebra of symmetric polynomials in non-commuting variables

Abstract : We analyze the structure of the algebra $\mathbb{K}\langle \mathbf{x}\rangle^{\mathfrak{S}_n}$ of symmetric polynomials in non-commuting variables in so far as it relates to $\mathbb{K}[\mathbf{x}]^{\mathfrak{S}_n}$, its commutative counterpart. Using the "place-action'' of the symmetric group, we are able to realize the latter as the invariant polynomials inside the former. We discover a tensor product decomposition of $\mathbb{K}\langle \mathbf{x}\rangle^{\mathfrak{S}_n}$ analogous to the classical theorems of Chevalley, Shephard-Todd on finite reflection groups. In the case $|\mathbf{x}|= \infty$, our techniques simplify to a form readily generalized to many other familiar pairs of combinatorial Hopf algebras.
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François Bergeron, Aaron Lauve. Invariant and coinvariant spaces for the algebra of symmetric polynomials in non-commuting variables. 20th Annual International Conference on Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics (FPSAC 2008), 2008, Viña del Mar, Chile. pp.543-556. ⟨hal-01185140⟩

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