Abstract : We present a new solution for temporal coherence in non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) of animations. Given the conflicting goals of preserving the 2D aspect of the style and the 3D scene motion, any such solution is a trade-off. We observe that primitive-based methods in NPR can be seen as texture-based methods when using large numbers of primitives, leading to our key insight, namely that this process is similar to sparse convolution noise in procedural texturing. Consequently, we present a new primitive for NPR based on Gabor noise, that preserves the 2D aspect of noise, conveys the 3D motion of the scene, and is temporally continuous. We can thus use standard techniques from procedural texturing to create various styles, which we show for interactive NPR applications. We also present a user study to evaluate this and existing solutions, and to provide more insight in the trade-off implied by temporal coherence. The results of the study indicate that maintaining coherent motion is important, but also that our new solution provides a good compromise between the 2D aspect of the style and 3D motion.