Sémantique et discours - de la modélisation à l'interprétation

Maxime Amblard 1
1 SEMAGRAMME - Semantic Analysis of Natural Language
Inria Nancy - Grand Est, LORIA - NLPKD - Department of Natural Language Processing & Knowledge Discovery
Abstract : Our research is concerned with computational linguistics, proposing computational tools and techniques for natural language processing. Our research activity is spread over two areas : 1. semantic modeling using formal and logical approaches. We define gram- mars that respect Frege’s compositionality principle, following the ideas of Mon- tague semantics and inspired by (de Groote 2006), who introduced a theory of dynamics based on the λ-calculus. 2. the confrontation of these models of semantics and discourse to empiri- cal data extracted from pathological uses in conversations between schizophrenics and psychologists. First, we look back on our work in semantic modeling. We proposed a framework for the syntax-semantics interface in the context of Chomsky’s generative theory. The grammars, which we call Minimalist Categorical Grammars (MCG), are based on an extension of Lambek grammar, (Lambek 1958), and they coordinate the syntactic and the semantic calculus by a correspondence on types (based on the λ-calculus). This framework has later enabled us to linguistically interpret the commutative properties of the underlying logic. We then worked on semantic representations, which led us to supervise two PhDs with Philippe de Groote. In his PhD, Sai Qian proposed a model of events, negation and modal subordination. The solution to address these problems has been to consider all of them as phenomena of the accessibility of variables in dynamic semantics. For this, Sai has deeply expanded the notion of context (de Groote 2006). As a result, we were interested in unifying the treatments in a single setting. In his PhD, Jirka Maršík has defined a calculus inspired by modern programming languages, particularly the use of effects and handlers. The resulting calculus allows us to simu- late different orders of evaluation, and thus give flexibility to the context. Jirka has first studied the properties of his calculus and proven subject reduction, confluence and ter- mination. Second, he showed how to use it to account for different linguistic phenomena. In the second part, we questioned the adequacy of these formal approaches and their use in solving empirical problems. We carried out a field study modeling conversations between schizophrenics and psychologists, which resulted in the SLAM project (Schizo- phrenia and Language : Analysis and Modeling). In these interviews, we found exchanges whose semantic or pragmatic interpretation was difficult or impossible. The idea was to use logical formalisms for the representation of speech to question these dysfunctions. When studying these interviews, it seemed appropriate to analyze other levels than semantics. We implemented automatic processing tools for our data to analyze disfluency production and the distribution of part-of-speech tags. We were able to confirm that schizophrenics produced more disfluencies than interlocutors from the control group. Finally, we worked on the use of explicit markers of discourse relations in information retrieval. The final part of the Report highlights our research perspectives that propose to unify the two previous axes. That is, to reconcile computational semantics with its applica- tions in the field of cognitive science. We would primarily develop semantic grammars and formal models of dialogue.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 15, 2016 - 4:09:27 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01415967, version 2



Maxime Amblard. Sémantique et discours - de la modélisation à l'interprétation. Informatique [cs]. Université de Lorraine (Nancy), 2016. ⟨tel-01415967v2⟩



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