Établissement et caractérisation de modèles précliniques de résistance aux inhibiteurs de points de contrôles immunitaires

Abstract : Because of the limited efficacy and the toxicity of conventional therapies to fight cancer, researchers focused on the new trategies. These efforts lead to the emergence of immunotherapies, whose msot recent actors are the monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint (ICP). Among those ICP inhibitors, we found antibodies targeting the surface protein « Programmed Cell Death 1 », called anti- PD1, and those targeting its ligand, « Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 », called anti- PDL-1. Those antibodies shown a great efficacy in a wide diveristy of cancers, and are currently used for clinical practice in the case of melanoma, lung cancer, bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma. However, those treatments don’t benefit to all tumor bearing patients, with a mean of 60% of innate resistance, and 25% of acquired resistance following a primary response, variable according to tumor type. Phenomena involved in resistance are currently poorly described. In this context, the aim of my project was to establish in vivo preclinical models of acquired resistance to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL-1. To do that, we used syngeneic renal cancer (RENCA), bladder cancer (MB49 and MBT-2), and colorectal cancer (MC38), and immunocompetent mice, that we have made resistant by serial reimplantations of tumors pieces and serial treatments, inducing a selection pressure until we obtained a resistant phenotype. The efficiency of PD1/PDL-1 axis blocking is strongly linked to the microenvironment composition, as a result we realized an immunophenotyping protocol. We observed anti-tumor cells as T cells, Natural Killer cells, and M1 macrophages, but also cells harboring immunosuppressive functions, as M2 macrophages, MDSC, and Treg. Moreover, some studies have identified an upregulation of alternatives ICP in the context of acquired resistance to anti-PD1, so we also observed the expression of LAG3, TIM3 and TIGIT besides PD1 and PDL-1 expression. We shown that resistance is strongly dependant to the tumor model, even if we identified a decrease of anti-tumor M1 macrophages is models resistant to anti-PD1, and an increase of Treg in models resistant to anti-PDL-1, suggesting a common mechanism of resistance specific to respectively anti PD1 and anti-PDL-1. Following Zaretsky and al. identification of genes involved in interferon pathway in the case of acquired resistance to anti-PD1 in melanoma, we decided to study the molecular profile of resistant tumors. We identified 5 common genes differently modulated between anti-PD1 and anti-PDL-1 resistant models, including SERPINF1 and FCNA which seems to be promising as targets to validate. Lastly, in parallel to establishment and characterization of preclinical models of acquired resistance, we tested new therapeutical approches of anti-PD1 and anti- PDL-1 potentiation in combination with reference chemotherapies. We shown a synergy in wild-type colorectal and bladder cancers (MC38 and MB49), no effect of the combination in metastatic breast cancer 4T1, and an inhibition of anti-PDL 1 effect in bladder cancer MBT-2. Immunphenotyping of tumors allowed us to observe here also high differences between tumor models, both at baseline and after treatments initiation. To conclude, even if our results need a validation with patients samples, we demonstrated that different cellular and molecular modifications could be involved in resistance to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL-1, and that resistance could be bypass with chemotherapy combination, according to tumor type
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Chloé Grasselly. Établissement et caractérisation de modèles précliniques de résistance aux inhibiteurs de points de contrôles immunitaires. Cancer. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1256⟩. ⟨tel-02390159⟩

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