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Semi-supervised dictionary learning and Semi-supervised deep neural network

Abstract : Since the 2010's, machine learning (ML) has been one of the topics that attract a lot of attention from scientific researchers. Many ML models have been demonstrated their ability to produce excellent results in various fields such as Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Robotics... However, most of these models use supervised learning, which requires a massive annotation. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to study and to propose semi-supervised learning approaches that have many advantages over supervised learning. Instead of directly applying a semi-supervised classifier on the original representation of data, we rather use models that integrate a representation learning stage before the classification stage, to better adapt to the non-linearity of the data. In the first step, we revisit tools that allow us to build our semi-supervised models. First, we present two types of model that possess representation learning in their architecture: dictionary learning and neural network, as well as the optimization methods for each type of model. Moreover, in the case of neural network, we specify the problem with adversarial examples. Then, we present the techniques that often accompany with semi-supervised learning such as variety learning and pseudo-labeling. In the second part, we work on dictionary learning. We synthesize generally three steps to build a semi-supervised model from a supervised model. Then, we propose our semi-supervised model to deal with the classification problem typically in the case of a low number of training samples (including both labelled and non-labelled samples). On the one hand, we apply the preservation of the data structure from the original space to the sparse code space (manifold learning), which is considered as regularization for sparse codes. On the other hand, we integrate a semi-supervised classifier in the sparse code space. In addition, we perform sparse coding for test samples by taking into account also the preservation of the data structure. This method provides an improvement on the accuracy rate compared to other existing methods. In the third step, we work on neural network models. We propose an approach called "manifold attack" which allows reinforcing manifold learning. This approach is inspired from adversarial learning : finding virtual points that disrupt the cost function on manifold learning (by maximizing it) while fixing the model parameters; then the model parameters are updated by minimizing this cost function while fixing these virtual points. We also provide criteria for limiting the space to which the virtual points belong and the method for initializing them. This approach provides not only an improvement on the accuracy rate but also a significant robustness to adversarial examples. Finally, we analyze the similarities and differences, as well as the advantages and disadvantages between dictionary learning and neural network models. We propose some perspectives on both two types of models. In the case of semi-supervised dictionary learning, we propose some techniques inspired by the neural network models. As for the neural network, we propose to integrate manifold attack on generative models.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03206023
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 22, 2021 - 6:29:07 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, May 1, 2021 - 3:46:18 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03206023, version 1

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Khanh-Hung Tran. Semi-supervised dictionary learning and Semi-supervised deep neural network. Machine Learning [cs.LG]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021UPASP014⟩. ⟨tel-03206023⟩

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