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Influence de l'aluminium et des sols acides sur la croissance du sapin de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb.) : rôle de la paroi dans les réponses au stress aluminique

Abstract : In Europe, softwood forests are very abundant and are characterized by an acidic soil profile. In these conditions, when the soil pH drops below 5.5, aluminum is present in soils in a soluble and bioavailable form Al3+. This work was carried out on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), a coniferous tree, widely distributed in France and particularly in the Limousin region. In this study we used different cultivation methods (in vitro cultures with controlled conditions, and semi-controlled conditions in greenhouse on naturally acidic forest soils rich in Al). Plants were analyzed at different stages of development (seedling stage and young tree stage) and for different exposure periods (2 and 11 months). The results have shown that the growth of Douglas fir and its mineral nutrition were disturbed when exposed to high Al concentrations (500 μM AlCl3 in vitro, and about 1 mg Al.g-1 at pH 5 on forest soils). We showed that the roots exhibited severe symptoms of toxicity and accumulated the majority of the Al within the cell wall. It has been shown that, to cope with aluminum toxicity, Douglas fir developed different strategies. On one hand, the chemical characterization of the cell wall revealed quantitative and qualitative modifications in the polysaccharidic composition of the wall, in particular pectins (harboring a higher galacturonic acid content with less ramification) following regulation of pectin methylesterase activity, and hemicelluloses (richer in glucomannans), suggesting a trapping process of Al in the cell wall structures. On the other hand, at the intracellular level, the results showed a stimulation of a key enzyme activity involved in the reduction of oxidative stress induced under aluminum stress, as well as an accumulation of proline, potentially capable of chelating Al inside the cell. Therefore, Douglas fir plantlets showed a relative high tolerance level to Al equivalent to other coniferous species which can be explained at the cellular level by an exclusion process involving retention by the cell wall but also a complexation process in the intracellular compartment.
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Holm Amara. Influence de l'aluminium et des sols acides sur la croissance du sapin de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb.) : rôle de la paroi dans les réponses au stress aluminique. Biologie végétale. Université de Limoges, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LIMO0054⟩. ⟨tel-03298896⟩

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